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Pit Grave was replaced by the Catacomb culture in the steppes east of the Dnieper Valley hundreds of years earlier, around 2700 or even 2800 BC Catacomb sites lasted until 1900 BC Middle Bronze Age. ”Srubnaya) culture came to prominence about 1900 BC and ended about 1200 BC Late Bronze Age.

THE ROOTS OF THE STEPPE BRONZE AGEThe period 4000 - 3500 BC witnessed the appearance of new kinds of wealth in the steppes north of the Black Sea (the North Pontic region) and, simultaneously, the fragmentation of societies in the Danube Valley and eastern Carpathians (the Cucuteni Tripolye culture) that had been the region's centers of population and economic productivity.

Later, in the Southern Bug Valley, the easternmost Tripolye people concentrated into a few very large towns, such as Maidanets'ke, arguably for defensive reasons.

The largest were 300 - 400 hectares in area, with fifteen hundred buildings arranged in concentric circles around a large central plaza or green.

Only a few clusters of towns in the Dniester Valley retained the old Tripolye customs of large houses, fine painted pottery, and female figurines after 3500 BC This sequence of events, still very poorly understood, spelled the end of the rich Copper Age cultures of Ukraine, Romania, and Bulgaria, termed ”Old Europe” by Marija Gimbutas.

The steppe cultures of the western North Pontic region became richer, but it is difficult to say whether they raided the Danube Valley and Tripolye towns or just observed and profited from an internal crisis brought on by soil degradation and climate change.

In the steppes of northern Kazakhstan, just east of this Ural frontier, the sequence jumps from a local Eneolithic to a brief and poorly defined Early Bronze Age (strongly influenced by the western Middle Bonze Age), followed by the Late Bronze Age.Anthony, Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes Oldest Wooden Wheel Found in Slovenia. No surviving inscriptions describe the Bronze Age cultures of the steppe - they are entirely prehistoric.For that reason, they are much less well known than their descendants of the Iron Age, such as the Scythians.These grave types are now recognized as the backbone of the Bronze Age chronology for the western steppes.The absolute dates given to them here are maximal dates, the earliest and latest expressions. ”Yamnaya”) culture, for example, began in 3300 BC and persisted in the steppes northwest of the Black Sea until about 2300 BCEarly Bronze Age.

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